Bavaria

  • Bavaria
  • former federal country of the German Empire
  • since 1949 federal country of the FRG
Contents:

 

Flags:

Flagge Bayern Flag Bavaria

flag of the country,
=> stripes


Flagge Bayern Flag Bavaria

flag of the country,
=> lozenges


Flagge Bayern Ministerpräsidenten Flag Bavaria prime minister

flag of the Premier and the Vice-Premier – standard for cars


Flagge Bayern stellvertretender Ministerpräsident Flag Bavaria vice prime minister

flag for State Ministers and Secretaries of State – standard for cars


Flagge Bayern Minister Flag Bavaria minister

flag for the Plenipotentiary of the State of Bavaria to the Federation, for the President of the Constitutional Court, for the President of the Supreme Fiscal Court – standard for cars


Source by: Verwaltungsanordnung über die bayerischen Staatsflaggen
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historical Flags:

Flagge Bayern König Flag Bavaria King

1806–1835,
flag of the King of Bavaria,
Source by: Flags of the World


Flagge Bayern König Flag Bavaria King

1835–1918,
flag of the King of Bavaria,
Source by: Flags of the World


Flag Bavaria

ca. 1813,
flag of the national field bataillons
Source by:
Brigade-Uniformtafel Nr. 102


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Meaning/Origin of the Flag:
The colours of Bavaria are white and blue. They correspond to the colours of the former Bavarian sovereign lineage of Wittelsbach. In the constitution of the country from the 2nd of December in 1946 became white and blue confirmed as colours of the country.
The Bavarian flag was officially first and always the white-blue lozenged flag. However, in the in practice stripe-flags were used, even in the military, and especially from the era of Napoleon, where striped national or state flags became popular. But the striped flag with two equally wide horizontal stripes in white and blue was not formally introduced until the 11th of Sepmtember in 1878. The lozenge-flag has compulsory 21 diamonds and begins in the upper corner with a white lozenge.
The lozenges are descended from the heraldry of the Counts of Bogen and are known since 1204. In the year 1242 they were given to the Wittelsbachers. In the year 1953 became the striped flag and the lozenged flag designated as state flags. There are none special official flag. Reproduction with coats of arms on the flags are not official.
For Bavaria are officially approved two shades of blue: dark blue CMYK 100-60-0-0, light blue CMYK 100-15-0-0. On this website are – just to express the difference – the current flags are coloured in dark blue, and the historical flags in light blue.
Source: World Statesmen, Discovery '97, Volker Preuß
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unofficial Flags:

Flagge Bayern Flag Bavaria

18th. century,
Source by: World Statesmen


Flagge Bayern Flag Bavaria

1820–1848,
Source by: World Statesmen


Flagge Bayern Flag Bavaria

1848–1878,
Source by: World Statesmen


The below flags are historically handed down, perhaps because they appeared in paintings and had been mentioned in descriptions, but they were never officially. Bavaria used officially (officially defined) always the lozenge-flag, and from 1878 the flag with two horizontal stripes in white and blue.
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Coats of Arms:

Wappen Herzogtum Bayern coat of arms Duchy Bavaria

13th cent. to 14th cent.,
blazon of the Duchy of Bavaria

Wappen Herzogtum Bayern coat of arms Duchy Bavaria

14th cent. to 1623,
blazon of the Duchy of Bavaria

Wappen Kurfürstentum Bayern coat of arms Electorate Bavaria

1623–1805,
blazon of the Electorate of Bavaria

Wappen Königreich Bayern coat of arms Kingdom Bavaria

1806–1835,
blazon of the Kingdom of Bavaria

Wappen Königreich Bayern coat of arms Kingdom Bavaria

1835–1918,
blazon of the Kingdom of Bavaria

Kokarde cockade Bayern Bavaria

to 1919,
cockade

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

1918–1923,
blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

1923–1950,
blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

since 1950,
lesser coat of arms

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

since 1950,
greater coat of arms

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

since 1950,
blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Landessymbol Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria

since 1987,
symbol of the Free State of Bavaria
Source by:: www.stmi.bayern.de

Landessymbol Wappen Franken symbol coat of arms Franconia

since 1987,
symbol of Franconia
Source by:: www.stmi.bayern.de
Source by: Heraldique Europeenne, Wikipedia (D), www.stmi.bayern.de, Volker Preuß
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Meaning/Origin of the Coats of Arms:
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria is quartered with a heart shield in the middle. The first field shows a golden lion with a red crown on black and stands for the Palatinate. The second field is white and red in a zigzag cut divided (named "Frankish Rake") and stands for Franconia. The third field shows two red-white posts a golden field between. It stands for the Margrave County of Burgau. The fourth field shows a blue lion with a golden crown on white ground. This is the Lion of Veldenz. It characterizes the finally ruling line of the Wittelsbach dynasty and points out the origin of the royal family from a middle rhenish dynastic lineage.
The heart shield in the middle shows the blue and white lozenges. As shield holders serve until today two Bavarian lions, albeit they must have hand over their crowns after the year 1919.
The coat of arms of the Free State of Bavaria was designed in 1923. The central shield with the lozenges was removed, and the lozenges were placed into the first field of the quartered blazon. The Palatinatian lion enters in this way from the first field into the second, the Frankish Rake changes from the second field into the third, the Spannheim lion was completely deleted, and instead of the poles of the ;argraveship of Burgau appear now the Hohenstaufen's black lions (Suebia) on golden ground. A crown covers the whole topside of the shield and is named "people's crown".
The today's Bavarian arms is determined by the "Law on the coat of arms of the Free State of Bavaria" from 1950. There is only one lesser state emblem (lozenge shield with people's crown) and a large coat of arms (fourfold divided shield with heart shield and people's crown). The great coat of arms of the stete is always accompanied by two lions as supporters and shows since 1923 the "people's crown".
The today's blazon equals now more the royal blazon from before the year 1919 because the central shield with the lozenges appears again, and field 1 (Palatinate, although ceded in 1945, stands now for the Upper Palatinate) and field 2 (Franconia) correspond. In the third field became adoped the Lions of Hohenstaufen (Suebia). In the fourth field a blue "Lion" on silver which actually is none. It is not a lion and not a panther but a "Pantier", a fable creature, a kind of dragon which shows in the mouth no red tongue but a red flame. The Pantier is often named "Lion of Sponheim". It has its roots in the sovereign lineage of Sponheim (=> hier klicken) and appears also in the coat of arms of Ingolstadt City. In the year 1260 the "Lion of Sponheim" was transfered to the House of Wittelsbach. In the today’s Bavarian coat of arms it stands for Upper and Lower Bavaria (Old Bavaria).
Source: Volker Preuß, Stephan Gorski
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Map:
clickable map
FRG and its countries:


Source: Freeware, University of Texas Libraries, modyfied by: Volker Preuß

Today's Bavaria appears on the map in blue, and the yellow border shows the boundaries of the Duchy of Bavaria at the end of the 10th century.
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Numbers and Facts:
  • Area:
    27 240 square miles
  • Inhabitants:
    12 560 000 (2011)
  • Density of Population:
    461 inh./sq.mi.
  • Religions:
    55% Roman Catholic,
    20% Protestant,
    4% Muslim
  • Capital:
    Munich
    1 350 000 inh. (2010)
  • Currency:
    • bis 1876:
      1 Gulden = 60 Kreuzer
    • 1876–1924:
      1 Mark = 100 Pfennig
    • 1924–1948:
      1 Reichsmark (RM)
      = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)
    • 1949–2001:
      1 Deutsche Mark (DM)
      = 100 Pfennig (Pf.)
    • ab 2002:
      1 Euro (€, EUR)
      = 100 Cent (Ct.)
Source: Wikipedia (D), Der Michel, Volker Preuß
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History:
6th century to 788 · first Duchy of Bavaria
907–937 · renewal of the Duchy of Bavaria
976 · the southeast of the Duchy of Bavaria is separated as Duchy of Carinthia
1070 · the House of the Guelphs (Welfen) gets the title of duke
1180 · Styria is separated from Bavaria as a duchy under the House of the Ottokars
1180 · beginning of the regency of the Wittelsbach Dynasty over the Duchy of Bavaria (to 1918)
1329 · division by heritage (inheritance) into Palatinate and (old) Bavaria
1356 · 'Golden Bull', the Palatinate becomes an electorate
1429–1503 · inheritances followed by divisions
1506 · introduction of primogeniture for the prevention of divisions of inheritances
1620 · Battle at the White Mountain, the Bavarian General Tilly suggests the Protestants and occupies soon after it the Palatinate
1623 · Duke Maximilian I. becomes levied to Elector, Upper Palatinate comes to Bavaria
1776 · the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach Dynasty extincts, the Wittelsbach line of the Palatinate inherits the Electorate of Bavaria
1800 · invasion of French troops under Napoléon
1803 · unification of Bavaria and Palatinate under the Wittelsbach Dynasty (Palatinate line)
1805 · invasion of French troops under Napoléon, the Electorate of Bavaria comes on the side of France
1805 · the Austrian territories of Salzburg, Tyrol and Vorarlberg become annexed to Bavaria
1st of January 1806 · the Electorate of Bavaria becomes levied to a kingdom by Napoléon
12th of July 1806 · founding of the Rhine Confederation by Napoléon, Bavaria joines the Rhine Confederation and leaves among other members the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation on 1st of August in 1806
1810 · the Austrian Inn-River-Area becomes annexed to Bavaria
1813 · Bavaria turns away from Napoléon, Napoléon defeats at Leipzig in October
1814–1815 · Vienna Congress, reorganization of Europe after the Napoleonic era, Bavaria has to cede back its aqusitions from 1805 and 1810
1815 · Bavaria joines the German Confederation
1866 · Fratricidal War of Prussia against Austria, Bavaria is on the side of Austria and subjects
1871 · Bavaria joines the German Empire, with a special status (special rights for its own mail service, railway and army, and the right for own foreign representatives – they were abolished in 1921, that at the Holy See in 1934)
1918 · overthrow of the monarchy
8th of November 1918 · proclamation of the Free State of Bavaria
1919 · communist coup, civil war
1920 · the Free State of Coburg becomes annexed to Bavaria after a referendum
1934 · the territorial structure of the states of the German Empire becomes replaced by the districts of the NSDAP, the countries become meaningless
1945 · USA occupation zone, separation of Palatinate
1949 · Bavaria becomes a state of the FRG
Source: Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß
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Origin of the Country's Name:
The name "Bavaria" is derived from that in earlier times here living tribe of the "Bajuwaren".
Source: Volker Preuß
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Kindly supported by:

Stephan Gorski (D)

 

 

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